The "Society Volume within the Jeddah Encyclopedia" focuses on presenting its topics within the concepts of sociology and its branches. Considering Jeddah a "city" linked to urban sociology, which means the life of the city, and looks at the city and analyzes it as a social phenomenon in itself, in addition to studying its problems ().
The city of Jeddah is located on the banks of the eastern coast of the Red Sea between latitudes 25-21, 45-21 north, and longitudes 5-20, 39-39 in the east in the middle of the Red Sea coast approximately and at close distances from the main group of ports on the Red Sea in Western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Jeddah is bordered to the east by a group of small hills, followed by a series of mountains: these hills are about twelve kilometers away from the sea, forming the width of the coast that follows the city, and the desert surrounds Jeddah and is about 75 kilometers away from Makkah, or about 46 miles. The geographical location of Jeddah has made it a meeting place for commercial caravans since ancient times, and from there they go to the rest of the surrounding cities ().
The climate of the city of Jeddah has high humidity most of the year, and its rates are in the late summer, and it is very hot in the summer and the temperature in it decreases during the months of December and January, and most of Jeddah's winds are light to moderate northwest during most of the year and are active sometimes during the winter season.
Sometimes southerly winds blow during the winter, spring and autumn seasons, usually accompanied by sandy dust storms and sometimes accompanied by rainy thunderstorms. Most of the rains in Jeddah are of the type of showers accompanied by thunderstorms and usually fall during the winter season and may fall in spring and autumn as a result of the passage of depressions from west to east and their meeting With the moderation of the thermocline on the region ().
Jeddah from the old cities (); Yaqut al-Hamwi mentioned it as a country on the coast of the Sea of Yemen, and it is the precinct of Mecca. In Jeddah, the grandmother of bin Hazm bin Rayan bin Helwan bin Imran bin Alhaf bin Qudaa was born, so Jeddah was named by the name of the site and knew that it was a large city, and that it was in the time of the Persians and that Salman al-Farsi and his family inhabited it because they were a people who built its first wall and it was said that what was built by Khusraw bin Fayrouz bin Shahryar bin Bahram; They mastered its construction and made it four doors. Near Jeddah, I found several indications indicating the ancient settlement of this city by different population groups, including otter, Thamud, and others, who inhabited it thousands of years ago. There are also ancient inscriptions near Jeddah that symbolize different animals.