The city of Jeddah had a wide international fame, striking its fame in the depths of ancient history. Its strategic location has given it a prominent position and fame since ancient historical times, then with the dawn of Islam and the succession of governments until the modern era and as God wills for them to survive, thrive and prosper.
The city of Jeddah gained the attention of the world’s governments and scholars, and it was intended by foreign travelers, Arabs and Muslims, and dazzled them with the landmarks, gains, sciences and knowledge they found in it. And various sciences and knowledge, and these civilizational achievements had to be accurately recorded and scientifically documented, hence the idea of the Jeddah Encyclopedia. To study and record that great cultural heritage, and a group of scholars, specialists, and those interested in civilizational history have embraced this. Among the cultural achievements that must be recorded and proven is this scientific volume, which came under the title: (Archeology and Heritage in the City of Jeddah). Writing, extrapolation and analysis from books, documents and references and through field studies, photographic documentation, personal interviews and other methodological scientific methods and methods, and the research team had a set of information vessels that were the basis and pillar upon which it was built and through which this archaeological and heritage volume of the city of Jeddah was documented, Therefore, the scientific research team considered that the discussions of this volume should be as follows:
The study opens with an introduction that talks about the stone ages, drawings and rock inscriptions in Jeddah and its surroundings, and this study was divided into two parts, the first section talks about architecture, and it was as follows:
First: Religious architecture, and it included many topics, including:
(1) Mosque architecture: such as (Al-Jami Al-Ateeq Mosque, Al-Hanafi Mosque, Akash Mosque, Al-Meamar Mosque, Al-Basha Mosque, Al-Abanos Mosque, Abu Enabah Mosque, Al-Khader Mosque, Al-Jilani Mosque, Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq Mosque, Shamila Mosque, Al-Barkaly Mosque, Abu Mosque Seifin, the Pearl Mosque, Hassouna Mosque, Sulaymaniyah Mosque, Al-Qunfudhah Mosque in Bahrat Al-Bahr, Al-Hidaya Mosque, Al-Fatta Mosque, Nassif Mosque, Al-Aqili Mosque, Al-Farda Mosque and other mosques). The study covered (architecture, architectural elements, mihrabs, columns and arches, minarets and canopies). ).
(2) Schools: the study in this aspect was limited. Due to the lack of practical material, the study focused on Al-Falah School, an inductive and field study.
Second: Civil Architecture, and the study included the following:
(1) Water installations, including: early works to deliver Al-Ain water to Jeddah, by delivering Haddah water to Jeddah and Ain Quoz water delivery to Jeddah (Al-Ain site, canal construction road) -Ayn Al-Waziriyah (delivery of Al-Ain water to Jeddah, the importance of Al-Ain water in The fourteenth century AH, reform and restoration) - Al-Kindasa, its inception and development, the sepals and the manholes.
(2) Bathroom architecture.
(3) House architecture, and the study dealt with (architectural planning, internal spaces, components of internal units, including: (the hallway, the majlis, the characteristic, the staircase, the backside, the accommodation, the bathroom, the kitchen). And the wooden screens), and the study dealt with an important descriptive presentation of some of the distinctive homes in Jeddah, for example (Nassif House, Noor Wali's House, Al-Jokhdar House, and Bakhsh House).
(4) Quarantine, as well as a study on health services (hospital)
(5) The port, then a study on the Punt building.
(6) Markets and khans as an integral part of civil architecture in the city of Jeddah, and from the historical markets we mentioned the following: (Al-Nada Market, Bedouin Market, Al-Jamea Market, Al-Alawi Market, and others). The study also dealt with the architecture of the khans and their functions.
(7) Cafés and parks, which are an integral part of the public services that fall within the scope of civil architecture.
Third: War Architecture:
(1) The Wall of Jeddah and includes the following paragraphs:
(A) The first construction of the wall until the end of the Mamluk era
(B) Wall architecture at the end of the Mamluk era
(C) The date of the construction of the wall
(D) Architectural planning through the document
(E) Characteristic of the wall’s architecture through historical accounts and photographs.
(2) Architecture of the castle
(3) Military barracks
As for the second section, it is concerned with industries and crafts, such as: the metal industries from which we mentioned: iron industries, such as the manufacture of weapons and the consequent mention of the tools that are used in that industry, as well as the manufacture of copper and its uses, then the manufacture of jewelry, and it is called drafting with mentioning the tools used by the goldsmith In the industry. Then the study dealt with the issue of wood industries and their importance in the lives of the people of Jeddah, with mentioning some of the craftsmen from the people of Jeddah who had the highest mug in highlighting the industry and its importance, with mentioning the tools necessary for wood industries, such as types of wood, and the study included technical methods of wood industry such as the method Engraving, turning, assembly and unloading, stacks, and color decoration, and mentioning examples of wooden technical industries such as making doors, windows or windows, Rawashin, as well as making ships, making shadows, making pots and tables, and carts, making pots for storing grain and dates, making hand fans, chairs and beds, And the rosary industry, and also industries:
Sesame presses, and these are among the trades or professions that people desperately need.
Industry of fronds and leaves.
Pottery industry, and this is also one of the most important industries, especially in preserving water and its uses, and other trades, professions and industries that were manufactured in the city of Jeddah. To meet the needs of the people and to export the surplus outside of Jeddah.